Published On: January 24th, 20184.9 min read

Modern Front-end development may look easy at first, but producing a clean, semantic and cross-browser supported code is definitely a hard job. It is useful to maintain some best practices, which are discussed here.

Front-End Coding | Nascenia

Figure: Front-End Coding

1. Declare a DOCTYPE

The DOCTYPE declaration should be in the first line of HTML. Actually, it activates the standard mode in all browser. It is recommended that you use the HTML doctype:

2. Close your tag

Leaving some tags open is simply a bad practice. Only self-closing tags (

,,,, etc)are valid. Normal elements can never have self-closing tags.

3. Explain which div you are closing

If we view most of the website source at the very bottom of the page an almost endless list of closing

tags. Without proper code organization, it can be messy. Using indentation and comment for every div is a good practice.

<!– #header →

4. Use a CSS reset

CSS reset will ensure that all elements have no particular style so you can define your own.

html, body, div, span, applet, object, iframe,
 h1, h2, h3, h4, h5, h6, p, blockquote, pre,
 a, abbr, acronym, address, big, cite, code,
 del, dfn, em, font, img, ins, kbd, q, s, samp,
 small, strike, strong, sub, sup, tt, var,
 b, u, i, center,
 dl, dt, dd, ol, ul, li,
 fieldset, form, label, legend,
 table, caption, tbody, tfoot, thead, tr, th, td {
 margin: 0;
 padding: 0;
 border: 0;
 outline: 0;
 font-size: 100%;
 vertical-align: baseline;
5. Never use inline styles

When creating your markup, do not use inline styling because it would be very hard to override these styles in case you need to.

6. Include external CSS inside the HEAD tag

Style sheets can be placed anywhere but the HTML specification recommends that they be placed within the document HEAD tag. The primary benefit is that pages will load faster.

7. Consider placing JavaScript at the bottom

When loading a script, the browser cannot continue until the entire file has been loaded. If we have JavaScript files in order to add functionality, we should place those files at the bottom, just before the closing body tag. This is a good performance practice and the results are quite noticeable.

8. Use lowercase in your tags

It is a good practice to keep markup lower-case. The capitalizing markup will work and will probably not affect how your web pages are rendered, but it does affect code readability. We should keep it simple.

9. Keep the syntax organized

When pages will grow, managing HTML can be hard. There are some quick rules that can help us to keep our syntax clean and organized. These include the following:

  • Indent nested elements
  • Use double quotes, not single or completely omitted quotes
  • Omit the values on Boolean attributes
10. Use practical ID and classes names and values

We should only give elements an ID attribute if they are unique. Classes can be applied to multiple elements that share the same style properties. It is always preferable to name something ID or class, by the nature of what it is rather than by what it looks like.Class names should be all lowercase and use hyphen delimiters.

11. Organize CSS with comments

Let’s keep our styles organized in logical groups and provide a comment noting what the following styles pertain to. Otherwise we will regret it later.

12. Write CSS using multiple lines and spaces

It is important to place each selector and declaration on a new line. That will make the code easy to read and edit.

13. Use shorthand

One feature of CSS is the ability to use shorthand properties and values. Using that allows us to quickly set and identify styles. But when we’re only setting one value, shorthand alternatives should not be used, because it will be hard to identify which CSS attr is being applied.

14. Avoid units on zero values

One way to easily cut down on the amount of CSS we write is to remove the unit from any zero value. A zero will always be a zero.

15. Modularize styles for reuse

CSS is built to allow styles to be reused, specifically with the use of classes. For this reason, styles assigned to a class should be modular and available to share across elements as necessary.

16. Use multiple stylesheets, but be aware of them expanding beyond control

Depending on the complexity of the design and the size of the site, sometimes it’s easier to make smaller, multiple stylesheets instead of a giant one.

17. Use conditional comments

Sometimes some clients want even more by requiring to create web pages which are compatible with this obsolete browser. To target specific versions of IE, we can use the well known IE hacks, as shown below:

height: 200px; /* normal browsers */
 _height: 300px; /* IE6 */
 .height: 250px; /* IE7 */
 *height: 350px; /* All IEs */

Those hacks are extremely useful sometimes, but they are not the best way to target a specific version of IE, and it can cause CSS validation to fail.
Instead, we can use the conditional comment shown below to target IE6.

18. Checking in cross-browser while developing

One of the biggest mistake most of the beginners made when developing HTML, CSS, and javascript, was not to test pages on multiple browsers while developing them. Generally, we used to write all code and just view in Firefox to see how it was rendered.

In theory, this should be good. But cross-browser issues are a major problem for front-end developers, especially due to IE. If we test our documents on Firefox/IE/Chrome while writing it, cross-browser rendering problems will be much easier to fix.

If you want to learn more about Modern Front End technologies, visit follow Frontend development Guideline.

Contributor: Anwesha PaulNascenia

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